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Which of these is not a reason a Mu|ti-AZ RDS instance will failover?

  • A. An Availability Zone outage
  • B. A manual failover of the DB instance was initiated using Reboot with failover
  • C. To autoscale to a higher instance class
  • D. The primary DB instance fails

Answer: C

The primary DB instance switches over automatically to the standby replica if any of the > following conditions occur: An Availability Zone outage, the primary DB instance fails, the DB instance's server type is changed, the operating system of the DB instance is, undergoing software patching, a manual failover
of the DB instance was initiated using Reboot with failover

You need to process long-running jobs once and only once. How might you do this?

  • A. Use an SNS queue and set the visibility timeout to long enough forjobs to process.
  • B. Use an SQS queue and set the reprocessing timeout to long enough forjobs to process.
  • C. Use an SQS queue and set the visibility timeout to long enough forjobs to process.
  • D. Use an SNS queue and set the reprocessing timeout to long enough forjobs to proces

Answer: C

The message timeout defines how long after a successful receive request SQS waits before allowing jobs to be seen by other components, and proper configuration prevents duplicate processing.
Reference: ml

When thinking of DynamoDB, what are true of Global Secondary Key properties?

  • A. The partition key and sort key can be different from the table.
  • B. Only the partition key can be different from the table.
  • C. Either the partition key or the sort key can be different from the table, but not both.
  • D. Only the sort key can be different from the tabl

Answer: A

Global secondary index — an index with a partition key and a sort key that can be different from those on the table. A global secondary index is considered "gIobaI" because queries on the index can span all of the data in a table, across all partitions.

You need to deploy a new application version to production. Because the deployment is high-risk, you need to roll the new version out to users over a number of hours, to make sure everything is working correctly. You need to be able to control the proportion of users seeing the new version of the application down to the percentage point.
You use ELB and EC2 with Auto Scaling Groups and custom AMIs with your code pre-installed assigned to Launch Configurations. There are no database-level changes during your deployment. You have been told you cannot spend too much money, so you must not increase the number of EC2 instances much at all during the deployment, but you also need to be able to switch back to the original version of code quickly if something goes wrong. What is the best way to meet these requirements?

  • A. Create a second ELB, Auto Scaling Launch Configuration, and Auto Scaling Group using the Launch Configuratio
  • B. Create AM|s with all code pre-installe
  • C. Assign the new AMI to the second Auto Scaling Launch Configuratio
  • D. Use Route53 Weighted Round Robin Records to adjust the proportion of traffic hitting the two ELBs.
  • E. Use the Blue-Green deployment method to enable the fastest possible rollback if neede
  • F. Create a full second stack of instances and cut the DNS over to the new stack of instances, and change the DNS back if a rollback is needed.
  • G. Create AMIs with all code pre-installe
  • H. Assign the new AMI to the Auto Scaling Launch Configuration, to replace the old on
  • I. Gradually terminate instances running the old code (launched with the old Launch Configuration) and allow the new AMIs to boot to adjust the traffic balance to the new cod
  • J. On rollback, reverse the process by doing the same thing, but changing the AMI on the Launch Config back to the original code.
  • K. Migrate to use AWS Elastic Beanstal
  • L. Use the established and well-tested Rolling Deployment setting AWS provides on the new Application Environment, publishing a zip bundle of the new code and adjusting the wait period to spread the deployment over tim
  • M. Re-deploy the old code bundle to rollback if needed.

Answer: A

Only Weighted Round Robin DNS Records and reverse proxies allow such fine-grained tuning of traffic splits. The Blue-Green option does not meet the requirement that we mitigate costs and keep overall EC2 fileet size consistent, so we must select the 2 ELB and ASG option with WRR DNS tuning. This method is called A/B deployment and/or Canary deployment.

You are hired as the new head of operations for a SaaS company. Your CTO has asked you to make debugging any part of your entire operation simpler and as fast as possible. She complains that she has no idea what is going on in the complex, service-oriented architecture, because the developers just log to disk, and it's very hard to find errors in logs on so many services. How can you best meet this requirement and satisfy your CTO?

  • A. Copy all log files into AWS S3 using a cron job on each instanc
  • B. Use an S3 Notification Configuration on the <code>PutBucket</code> event and publish events to AWS Lambd
  • C. Use the Lambda to analyze logs as soon as they come in and flag issues.
  • D. Begin using CIoudWatch Logs on every servic
  • E. Stream all Log Groups into S3 object
  • F. Use AWS EMR clusterjobs to perform ad-hoc MapReduce analysis and write new queries when needed.
  • G. Copy all log files into AWS S3 using a cron job on each instanc
  • H. Use an S3 Notification Configuration on the <code>PutBucket</code> event and publish events to AWS Kinesi
  • I. Use Apache Spark on AWS EMR to perform at-scale stream processing queries on the log chunks and flag issues.
  • J. Begin using CIoudWatch Logs on every servic
  • K. Stream all Log Groups into an AWS Elasticsearch Service Domain running Kibana 4 and perform log analysis on a search cluster.

Answer: D

The Elasticsearch and Kibana 4 combination is called the ELK Stack, and is designed specifically for real-time, ad-hoc log analysis and aggregation. All other answers introduce extra delay or require pre-defined queries.
Amazon Elasticsearch Service is a managed service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale Elasticsearch in the AWS Cloud. Elasticsearch is a popular open-source search and analytics engine for use cases such as log analytics, real-time application monitoring, and click stream analytics. Reference:

You run accounting software in the AWS cloud. This software needs to be online continuously during the day every day of the week, and has a very static requirement for compute resources. You also have other, unrelated batch jobs that need to run once per day at any time of your choosing. How should you minimize cost?

  • A. Purchase a Heavy Utilization Reserved Instance to run the accounting softwar
  • B. Turn it off after hour
  • C. Run the batch jobs with the same instance class, so the Reserved Instance credits are also applied to the batch jobs.
  • D. Purchase a Medium Utilization Reserved Instance to run the accounting softwar
  • E. Turn it off after hour
  • F. Run the batch jobs with the same instance class, so the Reserved Instance credits are also applied to the batch jobs.
  • G. Purchase a Light Utilization Reserved Instance to run the accounting softwar
  • H. Turn it off after hour
  • I. Run the batch jobs with the same instance class, so the Reserved Instance credits are also applied to the batch jobs.
  • J. Purchase a Full Utilization Reserved Instance to run the accounting softwar
  • K. Turn it off after hour
  • L. Run the batch jobs with the same instance class, so the Reserved Instance credits are also applied to the batch jobs.

Answer: A

Because the instance will always be online during the day, in a predictable manner, and there are a sequence of batch jobs to perform at any time, we should run the batch jobs when the account software is off. We can achieve Heavy Utilization by alternating these times, so we should purchase the reservation as such, as this represents the lowest cost. There is no such thing a "FuII" level utilization purchases on EC2.

Which deployment method, when using AWS Auto Scaling Groups and Auto Scaling Launch Configurations, enables the shortest time to live for indMdual sewers?

  • A. Pre-baking AMIs with all code and configuration on deploys.
  • B. Using a Dockerfile bootstrap on instance launch.
  • C. Using UserData bootstrapping scripts.
  • D. Using AWS EC2 Run Commands to dynamically SSH into fileet

Answer: A

Note that the bootstrapping process can be slower if you have a complex application or multiple applications to install. Managing a fileet of applications with several build tools and dependencies can be a challenging task during rollouts. Furthermore, your deployment service should be designed to do faster rollouts to take advantage of Auto Scaling. Prebaking is a process of embedding a significant portion of your application artifacts within your base AMI. During the deployment process you can customize application installations by using EC2 instance artifacts such as instance tags, instance metadata, and Auto Scaling groups.

Your application consists of 10% writes and 90% reads. You currently service all requests through a Route53 Alias Record directed towards an AWS ELB, which sits in front of an EC2 Auto Scaling Group. Your system is getting very expensive when there are large traffic spikes during certain news events, during which many more people request to read similar data all at the same time. What is the simplest and cheapest way to reduce costs and scale with spikes like this?

  • A. Create an S3 bucket and asynchronously replicate common requests responses into S3 object
  • B. When a request comes in for a precomputed response, redirect to AWS S3.
  • C. Create another ELB and Auto Scaling Group layer mounted on top of the other system, adding a tier to the syste
  • D. Serve most read requests out of the top layer.
  • E. Create a CloudFront Distribution and direct Route53 to the Distributio
  • F. Use the ELB as an Origin and specify Cache Behaviours to proxy cache requests which can be served late.
  • G. Create a Memcached cluster in AWS EIastiCach
  • H. Create cache logic to serve requests which can be served late from the in-memory cache for increased performance.

Answer: C

CIoudFront is ideal for scenarios in which entire requests can be served out of a cache and usage patterns involve heavy reads and spikiness in demand.
A cache behavior is the set of rules you configure for a given URL pattern based on file extensions, file names, or any portion of a URL path on your website (e.g., *.jpg). You can configure multiple cache behaviors for your web distribution. Amazon CIoudFront will match incoming viewer requests with your list of URL patterns, and if there is a match, the service will honor the cache behavior you configure for that URL pattern. Each cache behavior can include the following Amazon CIoudFront configuration values: origin server name, viewer connection protocol, minimum expiration period, query string parameters, cookies, and trusted signers for private content.

You need to grant a vendor access to your AWS account. They need to be able to read protected messages in a private S3 bucket at their leisure. They also use AWS. What is the best way to accomplish this?

  • A. Create an IAM User with API Access Key
  • B. Grant the User permissions to access the bucke
  • C. Give the vendor the AWS Access Key ID and AWS Secret Access Key for the User.
  • D. Create an EC2 Instance Profile on your accoun
  • E. Grant the associated IAM role full access to the bucke
  • F. Start an EC2 instance with this Profile and give SSH access to the instance to the vendor.
  • G. Create a cross-account IAM Role with permission to access the bucket, and grant permission to use the Role to the vendor AWS account.
  • H. Generate a signed S3 PUT URL and a signed S3 PUT URL, both with wildcard values and 2 year duration
  • I. Pass the URLs to the vendor.

Answer: C

When third parties require access to your organization's AWS resources, you can use roles to delegate access to them. For example, a third party might provide a service for managing your AWS resources. With IAM roles, you can grant these third parties access to your AWS resources without sharing your AWS security credentials. Instead, the third party can access your AWS resources by assuming a role that you create in your AWS account.

You are experiencing performance issues writing to a DynamoDB table. Your system tracks high scores for video games on a marketplace. Your most popular game experiences all of the performance issues. What is the most likely problem?

  • A. DynamoDB's vector clock is out of sync, because of the rapid growth in request for the most popular game.
  • B. You selected the Game ID or equivalent identifier as the primary partition key for the table.
  • C. Users of the most popular video game each perform more read and write requests than average.
  • D. You did not provision enough read or write throughput to the tabl

Answer: B

The primary key selection dramatically affects performance consistency when reading or writing to DynamoDB. By selecting a key that is tied to the identity of the game, you forced DynamoDB to create a hotspot in the table partitions, and over-request against the primary key partition for the popular game. When it stores data, DynamoDB dMdes a tabIe's items into multiple partitions, and distributes the data primarily based upon the partition key value. The provisioned throughput associated with a table is also dMded evenly among the partitions, with no sharing of provisioned throughput across partitions. Reference: nesForTabIes.UniformWorkIoad

You need to create a simple, holistic check for your system's general availablity and uptime. Your system presents itself as an HTTP-speaking API. What is the most simple tool on AWS to achieve this with?

  • A. Route53 Health Checks
  • B. CIoudWatch Health Checks
  • C. AWS ELB Health Checks
  • D. EC2 Health Checks

Answer: A

You can create a health check that will run into perpetuity using Route53, in one API call, which will ping your service via HTTP every 10 or 30 seconds.
Amazon Route 53 must be able to establish a TCP connection with the endpoint within four seconds. In addition, the endpoint must respond with an HTTP status code of 200 or greater and less than 400 within two seconds after connecting.
Reference: s.htmI

When thinking of DynamoDB, what are true of Local Secondary Key properties?

  • A. Either the partition key or the sort key can be different from the table, but not both.
  • B. Only the sort key can be different from the table.
  • C. The partition key and sort key can be different from the table.
  • D. Only the partition key can be different from the tabl

Answer: B

Global secondary index — an index with a partition key and a sort key that can be different from those on the table. A global secondary index is considered "gIobaI" because queries on the index can span all of the data in a table, across all partitions.

Your system automatically provisions EIPs to EC2 instances in a VPC on boot. The system provisions the whole VPC and stack at once. You have two of them per VPC. On your new AWS account, your attempt to create a Development environment failed, after successfully creating Staging and Production environments in the same region. What happened?

  • A. You didn't choose the Development version of the AMI you are using.
  • B. You didn't set the Development flag to true when deploying EC2 instances.
  • C. You hit the soft limit of 5 EIPs per region and requested a 6th.
  • D. You hit the soft limit of 2 VPCs per region and requested a 3r

Answer: C

There is a soft limit of 5 E|Ps per Region for VPC on new accounts. The third environment could not allocate the 6th EIP.

What is the order of most-to-least rapidly-scaling (fastest to scale first)?
(A) EC2 + ELB + Auto Scaling (B) Lambda (C) RDS

  • A. B, A, C
  • B. C, B, A
  • C. C, A, B
  • D. A, C, B

Answer: A

Lambda is designed to scale instantly. EC2 + ELB + Auto Scaling require single-digit minutes to scale out. RDS will take atleast 15 minutes, and will apply OS patches or any other updates when applied. Reference:|ambda/faqs/

When thinking of AWS Elastic Beanstalk, the 'Swap Environment URLs' feature most directly aids in what?

  • A. Immutable Rolling Deployments
  • B. MutabIe Rolling Deployments
  • C. Canary Deployments
  • D. Blue-Green Deployments

Answer: D

Simply upload the new version of your application and let your deployment service (AWS Elastic Beanstalk, AWS CIoudFormation, or AWS OpsWorks) deploy a new version (green). To cut over to the new version, you simply replace the ELB URLs in your DNS records. Elastic Beanstalk has a Swap
Environment URLs feature to facilitate a simpler cutover process.

Your system uses a multi-master, multi-region DynamoDB configuration spanning two regions to achieve high availablity. For the first time since launching your system, one of the AWS Regions in which you operate over went down for 3 hours, and the failover worked correctly. However, after recovery, your users are experiencing strange bugs, in which users on different sides of the globe see different data. What is a likely design issue that was not accounted for when launching?

  • A. The system does not have Lambda Functor Repair Automations, to perform table scans and chack for corrupted partition blocks inside the Table in the recovered Region.
  • B. The system did not implement DynamoDB Table Defragmentation for restoring partition performance in the Region that experienced an outage, so data is served stale.
  • C. The system did not include repair logic and request replay buffering logic for post-failure, to re-synchronize data to the Region that was unavailable for a number of hours.
  • D. The system did not use DynamoDB Consistent Read requests, so the requests in different areas are not utilizing consensus across Regions at runtime.

Answer: C

When using multi-region DynamoDB systems, it is of paramount importance to make sure that all requests made to one Region are replicated to the other. Under normal operation, the system in question would correctly perform write replays into the other Region. If a whole Region went down, the system would be unable to perform these writes for the period of downtime. Without buffering write requests somehow, there would be no way for the system to replay dropped cross-region writes, and the requests would be serviced differently depending on the Region from which they were served after recovery. Reference:

What method should I use to author automation if I want to wait for a CIoudFormation stack to finish completing in a script?

  • A. Event subscription using SQS.
  • B. Event subscription using SNS.
  • C. Poll using <code>ListStacks</code> / <code>Iist-stacks</code>.
  • D. Poll using <code>GetStackStatus</code> / <code>get-stack-status</code>.

Answer: C

Event driven systems are good for IFTTT logic, but only polling will make a script wait to complete. ListStacks / list-stacks is a real method, GetStackStatus / get-stack-status is not.

Which of these is not an instrinsic function in AWS CloudFormation?

  • A. Fn::EquaIs
  • B. Fn::|f
  • C. Fn::Not
  • D. Fn::Parse

Answer: D

This is the complete list of Intrinsic Functions...: Fn::Base64, Fn::And, Fn::EquaIs, Fn::If, Fn::Not, Fn::Or, Fn::FindInMap, Fn::GetAtt, Fn::GetAZs, Fn::Join, Fn::Se|ect, Ref

What is the scope of AWS IAM?

  • A. Global
  • B. Availability Zone
  • C. Region
  • D. Placement Group

Answer: A

IAM resources are all global; there is not regional constraint. Reference:

What is a circular dependency in AWS CIoudFormation?

  • A. When a Template references an earlier version of itself.
  • B. When Nested Stacks depend on each other.
  • C. When Resources form a DependOn loop.
  • D. When a Template references a region, which references the original Templat

Answer: C

To resolve a dependency error, add a DependsOn attribute to resources that depend on other resources in your template. In some cases, you must explicitly declare dependencies so that AWS CIoudFormation can create or delete resources in the correct order. For example, if you create an Elastic IP and a VPC
with an Internet gateway in the same stack, the Elastic IP must depend on the Internet gateway attachment. For additional information, see DependsOn Attribute.
Reference:|#troub|eshootin g-errors-dependence-error

Which status represents a failure state in AWS CIoudFormation?

  • C. <code>ROLLBACK_IN_PROGRESS</code>
  • D. <code>ROLLBACK_FAILED</code>

Answer: C

ROLLBACK_IN_PROGRESS means an UpdateStack operation failed and the stack is in the process of trying to return to the valid, pre-update state. UPDATE_COMPLETE_CLEANUP_IN_PROGRESS means an update was successful, and CIoudFormation is deleting any replaced, no longer used resources. ROLLBACK_FA|LED is not a CloudFormation state (but UPDATE_ROLLBACK_FAILED is). DELETE_COMPLETE_W|TH_ART|FACTS does not exist at all.

Your serverless architecture using AWS API Gateway, AWS Lambda, and AWS DynamoDB experienced a large increase in traffic to a sustained 400 requests per second, and dramatically increased in failure rates. Your requests, during normal operation, last 500 milliseconds on average. Your DynamoDB table did not exceed 50% of provisioned throughput, and Table primary keys are designed correctly. What is the most likely issue?

  • A. Your API Gateway deployment is throttling your requests.
  • B. Your AWS API Gateway Deployment is bottlenecking on request (de)seriaIization.
  • C. You did not request a limit increase on concurrent Lambda function executions.
  • D. You used Consistent Read requests on DynamoDB and are experiencing semaphore loc

Answer: C

AWS API Gateway by default throttles at 500 requests per second steady-state, and 1000 requests per second at spike. Lambda, by default, throttles at 100 concurrent requests for safety. At 500 milliseconds (half of a second) per request, you can expect to support 200 requests per second at 100 concurrency. This is less than the 400 requests per second your system now requires. Make a limit increase request via the AWS Support Console.
AWS Lambda: Concurrent requests safety throttle per account -> 100

You need to migrate 10 million records in one hour into DynamoDB. All records are 1.5KB in size. The data is evenly distributed across the partition key. How many write capacity units should you provision during this batch load?

  • A. 6667
  • B. 4166
  • C. 5556
  • D. 2778

Answer: C

You need 2 units to make a 1.5KB write, since you round up. You need 20 million total units to perform this load. You have 3600 seconds to do so. DMde and round up for 5556.
Reference: ut.htmI

Your CTO has asked you to make sure that you know what all users of your AWS account are doing to change resources at all times. She wants a report of who is doing what over time, reported to her once per week, for as broad a resource type group as possible. How should you do this?

  • A. Create a global AWS CIoudTraiI Trai
  • B. Configure a script to aggregate the log data delivered to S3 once per week and deliver this to the CTO.
  • C. Use CIoudWatch Events Rules with an SNS topic subscribed to all AWS API call
  • D. Subscribe the CTO to an email type delivery on this SNS Topic.
  • E. Use AWS IAM credential reports to deliver a CSV of all uses of IAM User Tokens over time to the CTO.
  • F. Use AWS Config with an SNS subscription on a Lambda, and insert these changes over time into a DynamoDB tabl
  • G. Generate reports based on the contents of this table.

Answer: A

This is the ideal use case for AWS CIoudTraiI.
CloudTrai| provides visibility into user actMty by recording API calls made on your account. CIoudTraiI records important information about each API call, including the name of the API, the identity of the caller, the time of the API call, the request parameters, and the response elements returned by the AWS service. This information helps you to track changes made to your AWS resources and to troubleshoot operational issues. CIoudTraiI makes it easier to ensure compliance with internal policies and regulatory standards. Reference:


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