CAS-003 | Approved CAS-003 Exam Questions and Answers 2021
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NEW QUESTION 1
The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) for an organization wants to develop custom IDS rulesets faster, prior to new rules being released by IDS vendors. Which of the following BEST meets this objective?
- A. Identify a third-party source for IDS rules and change the configuration on the applicable IDSs to pull in the new rulesets
- B. Encourage cybersecurity analysts to review open-source intelligence products and threat database to generate new IDS rules based on those sources
- C. Leverage the latest TCP- and UDP-related RFCs to arm sensors and IDSs with appropriate heuristicsfor anomaly detection
- D. Use annual hacking conventions to document the latest attacks and threats, and then develop IDS rules to counter those threats
NEW QUESTION 2
In a situation where data is to be recovered from an attacker’s location, which of the following are the FIRST things to capture? (Select TWO).
- A. Removable media
- B. Passwords written on scrap paper
- C. Snapshots of data on the monitor
- D. Documents on the printer
- E. Volatile system memory
- F. System hard drive
Explanation: An exact copy of the attacker’s system must be captured for further investigation so that the original data can remain unchanged. An analyst will then start the process of capturing data from the most volatile to the least volatile.
The order of volatility from most volatile to least volatile is as follows: Data in RAM, including CPU cache and recently used data and applications Data in RAM, including system and network processes
Swap files (also known as paging files) stored on local disk drives Data stored on local disk drives
Logs stored on remote systems Archive media
A: Removable media is not regarded as volatile data.
B: Passwords written on scrap paper is not regarded as volatile data. D: Documents on the printer is not regarded as volatile data.
F: Data stored on the system hard drive is lower in the order of volatility compared to system memory.
Gregg, Michael, and Billy Haines, CASP CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis, 2012, pp. 250-254
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NEW QUESTION 3
Following a security assessment, the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) is reviewing the results of the assessment and evaluating potential risk treatment strategies. As part of the CISO’s
evaluation, a judgment of potential impact based on the identified risk is performed. To prioritize response actions, the CISO uses past experience to take into account the exposure factor as well as the external accessibility of the weakness identified. Which of the following is the CISO performing?
- A. Documentation of lessons learned
- B. Quantitative risk assessment
- C. Qualitative assessment of risk
- D. Business impact scoring
- E. Threat modeling
NEW QUESTION 4
A security analyst is reviewing the corporate MDM settings and notices some disabled settings, which consequently permit users to download programs from untrusted developers and manually install them. After some conversations, it is confirmed that these settings were disabled to support the internal development of mobile applications. The security analyst is now recommending that developers and testers have a separate device profile allowing this, and that the rest of the organization’s users do not have the ability to manually download and install untrusted applications. Which of the following settings should be toggled to achieve the goal? (Choose two.)
- A. OTA updates
- B. Remote wiping
- C. Side loading
- D. Sandboxing
- E. Containerization
- F. Signed applications
NEW QUESTION 5
Which of the following provides the BEST risk calculation methodology?
- A. Annual Loss Expectancy (ALE) x Value of Asset
- B. Potential Loss x Event Probability x Control Failure Probability
- C. Impact x Threat x Vulnerability
- D. Risk Likelihood x Annual Loss Expectancy (ALE)
Explanation: Of the options given, the BEST risk calculation methodology would be Potential Loss x Event Probability x Control Failure Probability. This exam is about computer and data security so ‘loss’ caused by risk is not necessarily a monetary value.
Potential Loss could refer to the data lost in the event of a data storage failure. Event probability could be the risk a disk drive or drives failing.
Control Failure Probability could be the risk of the storage RAID not being able to handle the number of failed hard drives without losing data.
A: Annual Loss Expectancy (ALE) is a monetary value used to calculate how much is expected to be lost in one year. For example, if the cost of a failure (Single Loss Expectancy (SLE)) is $1000 and the failure is expected to happen 5 times in a year (Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO)), then the Annual Loss Expectancy is $5000. ALE is not the best calculation for I.T. risk calculation.
C: Impact x Threat x Vulnerability looks like a good calculation at first glance. However, for a risk calculation there needs to be a definition of the likelihood (probability) of the risk.
D: Annual Loss Expectancy (ALE) is a monetary value used to calculate how much is expected to be lost in one year. ALE is not the best calculation for I.T. risk calculation.
NEW QUESTION 6
At 9:00 am each morning, all of the virtual desktops in a VDI implementation become extremely slow and/or unresponsive. The outage lasts for around 10 minutes, after which everything runs properly again. The administrator has traced the problem to a lab of thin clients that are all booted at 9:00 am each morning. Which of the following is the MOST likely cause of the problem and the BEST solution? (Select TWO).
- A. Add guests with more memory to increase capacity of the infrastructure.
- B. A backup is running on the thin clients at 9am every morning.
- C. Install more memory in the thin clients to handle the increased load while booting.
- D. Booting all the lab desktops at the same time is creating excessive I/O.
- E. Install 10-Gb uplinks between the hosts and the lab to increase network capacity.
- F. Install faster SSD drives in the storage system used in the infrastructure.
- G. The lab desktops are saturating the network while booting.
- H. The lab desktops are using more memory than is available to the host system
Explanation: The problem lasts for 10 minutes at 9am every day and has been traced to the lab desktops. This question is asking for the MOST likely cause of the problem. The most likely cause of the problem is that the lab desktops being started at the same time at the beginning of the day is causing excessive disk I/O as the operating systems are being read and loaded from disk storage.
The solution is to install faster SSD drives in the storage system that contains the desktop operating systems.
A: If a lack of memory was the cause of the problem, the problem would occur throughout the day; not just for the 10 minutes it takes to boot the lab desktops. Therefore adding guests with more memory will not solve the problem so this answer is incorrect.
B: This question is asking for the MOST likely cause of the problem. A backup running on the thin clients at 9am every morning as soon as the lab desktops start up is an unlikely cause of the problem. It is much more likely that the lab desktops starting up at the same time is causing high disk I/O.
C: The lab desktops starting up would not cause memory issues on the thin clients so adding memory will not solve the issue.
E: The lab desktops starting up would not cause network bandwidth issues so increasing the bandwidth will not solve the issue.
G: The lab desktops starting up would not saturate the network.
H: If the lab desktops are using more memory than is available to the host systems, the problem would occur throughout the day; not just for the 10 minutes it takes to boot the lab desktops.
NEW QUESTION 7
Company.org has requested a black-box security assessment be performed on key cyber terrain. On area of concern is the company’s SMTP services. The security assessor wants to run reconnaissance before taking any additional action and wishes to determine which SMTP server is Internet-facing. Which of the following commands should the assessor use to determine this information?
- A. dnsrecon –d company.org –t SOA
- B. dig company.org mx
- C. nc –v company.org
- D. whois company.org
NEW QUESTION 8
A bank is in the process of developing a new mobile application. The mobile client renders content and communicates back to the company servers via REST/JSON calls. The bank wants to ensure that the communication is stateless between the mobile application and the web services gateway.
Which of the following controls MUST be implemented to enable stateless communication?
- A. Generate a one-time key as part of the device registration process.
- B. Require SSL between the mobile application and the web services gateway.
- C. The jsession cookie should be stored securely after authentication.
- D. Authentication assertion should be stored securely on the clien
Explanation: JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) are a great mechanism for persisting authentication information in a verifiable and stateless way, but that token still needs to be stored somewhere.
Login forms are one of the most common attack vectors. We want the user to give us a username and password, so we know who they are and what they have access to. We want to remember who the user is, allowing them to use the UI without having to present those credentials a second time. And we want to do all that securely. How can JWTs help?
The traditional solution is to put a session cookie in the user’s browser. This cookie contains an identifier that references a “session” in your server, a place in your database where the server remembers who this user is.
However there are some drawbacks to session identifiers:
They’re stateful. Your server has to remember that ID, and look it up for every request. This can become a burden with large systems.
They’re opaque. They have no meaning to your client or your server. Your client doesn’t know what it’s allowed to access, and your server has to go to a database to figure out who this session is for and if they are allowed to perform the requested operation.
JWTs address all of these concerns by being a self-contained, signed, and stateless authentication assertion that can be shared amongst services with a common data format.
JWTs are self-contained strings signed with a secret key. They contain a set of claims that assert an identity and a scope of access. They can be stored in cookies, but all those rules still apply. In fact, JWTs can replace your opaque session identifier, so it’s a complete win.
How To Store JWTs In The Browser
A: A one-time key does not enable stateless communication.
B: SSL between the mobile application and the web services gateway will provide a secure encrypted connection between the two. However, SSL does not enable stateless communication.
C: A cookie is stateful, not stateless as required in the question. References:
NEW QUESTION 9
The IT Security Analyst for a small organization is working on a customer’s system and identifies a
possible intrusion in a database that contains PII. Since PII is involved, the analyst wants to get the issue addressed as soon as possible. Which of the following is the FIRST step the analyst should take in mitigating the impact of the potential intrusion?
- A. Contact the local authorities so an investigation can be started as quickly as possible.
- B. Shut down the production network interfaces on the server and change all of the DBMS account passwords.
- C. Disable the front-end web server and notify the customer by email to determine how the customer would like to proceed.
- D. Refer the issue to management for handling according to the incident response proces
Explanation: The database contains PII (personally identifiable information) so the natural response is to want to get the issue addressed as soon as possible. However, in this question we have an IT Security Analyst working on a customer’s system. Therefore, this IT Security Analyst does not know what the customer’s incident response process is. In this case, the IT Security Analyst should refer the issue to company management so they can handle the issue (with your help if required) according to their incident response procedures.
A: Contacting the local authorities so an investigation can be started as quickly as possible would not be the first step. Apart from the fact an investigation could take any amount of time; this action does nothing to actually stop the unauthorized access.
B: Shutting down the production network interfaces on the server and changing all of the DBMS account passwords may be a step in the company’s incident response procedure. However, as the IT Security Analyst does not know what the customer’s incident response process is, he should notify management so they can make that decision.
C: Disabling the front-end web server may or may not stop the unauthorized access to the database server. However, taking a company web server offline may have a damaging impact on the company so the IT Security Analyst should not make that decision without consulting the management. Using email to determine how the customer would like to proceed is not appropriate method of communication. For something this urgent, a face-to-face meeting or at least a phone call would be more appropriate.
NEW QUESTION 10
A security analyst has been asked to create a list of external IT security concerns, which are applicable to the organization. The intent is to show the different types of external actors, their attack vectors, and the types of vulnerabilities that would cause business impact. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) will then present this list to the board to request funding for controls in areas that have insufficient coverage.
Which of the following exercise types should the analyst perform?
- A. Summarize the most recently disclosed vulnerabilities.
- B. Research industry best practices and latest RFCs.
- C. Undertake an external vulnerability scan and penetration test.
- D. Conduct a threat modeling exercis
NEW QUESTION 11
A Chief Information Officer (CIO) publicly announces the implementation of a new financial system. As part of a security assessment that includes a social engineering task, which of the following tasks should be conducted to demonstrate the BEST means to gain information to use for a report on social vulnerability details about the financial system?
- A. Call the CIO and ask for an interview, posing as a job seeker interested in an open position
- B. Compromise the email server to obtain a list of attendees who responded to the invitation who is on the IT staff
- C. Notify the CIO that, through observation at events, malicious actors can identify individuals to befriend
- D. Understand the CIO is a social drinker, and find the means to befriend the CIO at establishments the CIO frequents
NEW QUESTION 12
select id, firstname, lastname from authors User input= firstname= Hack;man lastname=Johnson
Which of the following types of attacks is the user attempting?
- A. XML injection
- B. Command injection
- C. Cross-site scripting
- D. SQL injection
Explanation: The code in the question is SQL code. The attack is a SQL injection attack.
SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker). SQL injection must explogt a security vulnerability in an application's software, for example, when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and unexpectedly executed. SQL injection is mostly known as an attack vector for websites but can be used to attack any type of SQL database.
A: The code in the question is not XML code. Therefore this is not an XML injection attack so this answer is incorrect.
B: Command injection is an attack in which the goal is execution of arbitrary commands on the host
operating system via a vulnerable application. Command injection attacks are possible when an application passes unsafe user supplied data (forms, cookies, HTTP headers etc.) to a system shell. The code in the question is not the type of code you would use in a command injection attack.
C: Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in Web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users. The code in the question is not the type of code you would use in an XSS attack.
NEW QUESTION 13
An organization enables BYOD but wants to allow users to access the corporate email, calendar, and contacts from their devices. The data associated with the user’s accounts is sensitive, and therefore, the organization wants to comply with the following requirements:
Active full-device encryption Enabled remote-device wipe Blocking unsigned applications
Containerization of email, calendar, and contacts
Which of the following technical controls would BEST protect the data from attack or loss and meet the above requirements?
- A. Require frequent password changes and disable NFC.
- B. Enforce device encryption and activate MAM.
- C. Install a mobile antivirus application.
- D. Configure and monitor devices with an MD
NEW QUESTION 14
An organization uses IP address block 203.0.113.0/24 on its internal network. At the border router, the network administrator sets up rules to deny packets with a source address in this subnet from entering the network, and to deny packets with a destination address in this subnet from leaving the network. Which of the following is the administrator attempting to prevent?
- A. BGP route hijacking attacks
- B. Bogon IP network traffic
- C. IP spoofing attacks
- D. Man-in-the-middle attacks
- E. Amplified DDoS attacks
Explanation: The IP address block 203.0.113.0/24 is used on the internal network. Therefore, there should be no traffic coming into the network claiming to be from an address in the 203.0.113.0/24 range. Similarly, there should be no outbound traffic destined for an address in the 203.0.113.0/24 range. So this has been blocked at the firewall. This is to protect against IP spoofing attacks where an attacker external to the network sends data claiming to be from an internal computer with an address in the 203.0.113.0/24 range.
IP spoofing, also known as IP address forgery or a host file hijack, is a hijacking technique in which a cracker masquerades as a trusted host to conceal his identity, spoof a Web site, hijack browsers, or
gain access to a network. Here's how it works: The hijacker obtains the IP address of a legitimate host and alters packet headers so that the legitimate host appears to be the source.
When IP spoofing is used to hijack a browser, a visitor who types in the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a legitimate site is taken to a fraudulent Web page created by the hijacker. For example, if the hijacker spoofed the Library of Congress Web site, then any Internet user who typed in the URL www.loc.gov would see spoofed content created by the hijacker.
If a user interacts with dynamic content on a spoofed page, the hijacker can gain access to sensitive information or computer or network resources. He could steal or alter sensitive data, such as a credit card number or password, or install malware. The hijacker would also be able to take control of a compromised computer to use it as part of a zombie army in order to send out spam.
A: BGP is a protocol used to exchange routing information between networks on the Internet. BGP route hijacking is the process of using BGP to manipulate Internet routing paths. The firewall configuration in this question will not protect against BGP route hijacking attacks.
B: Bogon is an informal name for an IP packet on the public Internet that claims to be from an area of the IP address space reserved, but not yet allocated or delegated by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) or a delegated Regional Internet Registry (RIR). The firewall configuration in this question will not protect against Bogon IP network traffic.
D: A man-in-the-middle attack is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other. The firewall configuration in this question will not protect against a man-in-the-middle attack.
E: A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. Amplified DDoS attacks use more systems to ‘amplify’ the attack. The firewall configuration in this question will not protect against a DDoS attack.
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NEW QUESTION 15
A network engineer is attempting to design-in resiliency characteristics for an enterprise network’s VPN services.
If the engineer wants to help ensure some resilience against zero-day vulnerabilities explogted against the VPN implementation, which of the following decisions would BEST support this objective?
- A. Implement a reverse proxy for VPN traffic that is defended and monitored by the organization’s SOC with near-real-time alerting to administrators.
- B. Subscribe to a managed service provider capable of supporting the mitigation of advanced DDoS attacks on the enterprise’s pool of VPN concentrators.
- C. Distribute the VPN concentrators across multiple systems at different physical sites to ensure some backup services are available in the event of primary site loss.
- D. Employ a second VPN layer concurrently where the other layer’s cryptographic implementation is sourced from a different vendor.
NEW QUESTION 16
Executive management is asking for a new manufacturing control and workflow automation solution. This application will facilitate management of proprietary information and closely guarded corporate trade secrets.
The information security team has been a part of the department meetings and come away with the following notes:
Human resources would like complete access to employee data stored in the application. They would like automated data interchange with the employee management application, a cloud-based SaaS application.
Sales is asking for easy order tracking to facilitate feedback to customers.
Legal is asking for adequate safeguards to protect trade secrets. They are also concerned with data ownership questions and legal jurisdiction.
Manufacturing is asking for ease of use. Employees working the assembly line cannot be bothered with additional steps or overhead. System interaction needs to be quick and easy.
Quality assurance is concerned about managing the end product and tracking overall performance of the product being produced. They would like read-only access to the entire workflow process for monitoring and baselining.
The favored solution is a user friendly software application that would be hosted onsite. It has extensive ACL functionality, but also has readily available APIs for extensibility. It supports read-only access, kiosk automation, custom fields, and data encryption.
Which of the following departments’ request is in contrast to the favored solution?
- A. Manufacturing
- B. Legal
- C. Sales
- D. Quality assurance
- E. Human resources
Explanation: The human resources department wanted complete access to employee data stored in the application, and an automated data interchange with their cloud-based SaaS employee management application. However, the favored solution provides read-only access and is hosted onsite. Incorrect Answers:
A: The manufacturing department wanted a quick and easy user friendly system. The favored solution is a user friendly software application that would meet the manufacturing department’s requests.
B: The legal department wanted a system that provides adequate safeguards to protect trade secrets and was concerned with data ownership and legal jurisdiction. The favored solution is a user friendly software application that would be hosted onsite. This would address the legal department’s concerns with data ownership and legal jurisdiction. The application also provides data encryption, which would protect trade secrets.
C: The sales department wanted an easy order tracking to facilitate feedback to customers. The favored solution is a user friendly software application that supports custom fields, which could be used for order tracking.
D: The quality assurance department was concerned about managing the end product and tracking overall performance. They also wanted read-only access to the entire workflow process for monitoring and baselining. These are met by the favored solution.
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