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Q31. Refer to the exhibit.
What is the polling frequency set by this configuration?
A. 60 seconds
B. 10 seconds
C. 360 seconds
D. 60 milliseconds
E. 10 milliseconds
The frequency value lists the polling interval, in seconds.
Q32. What are two reasons to use the ip ospf database filter all out command? (Choose two.)
A. to maintain a centralized OSPF database on a single master device
B. to avoid flooding LSAs on low-speed links
C. to ensure a consistent OSPF database across the network
D. to selectively filter OSPF routes without disrupting the SPF algorithm
E. to filter only type 7 LSAs from an OSPF area
F. to enable OSPF to send triggered updates
Q33. Refer to the exhibit.
Which configuration must you apply to router R2 to enable BFD?
A. Exhibit A
B. Exhibit B
C. Exhibit C
D. Exhibit D
Q34. Which statement is true about trunking?
A. Cisco switches that run PVST+ do not transmit BPDUs on nonnative VLANs when using a dot1q trunk.
B. When removing VLAN 1 from a trunk, management traffic such as CDP is no longer passed in that VLAN.
C. DTP only supports autonegotiation on 802.1q and does not support autonegotiation for ISL.
D. DTP is a point-to-point protocol.
Ethernet trunk interfaces support different trunking modes. You can set an interface as trunking or nontrunking or to negotiate trunking with the neighboring interface. To autonegotiate trunking, the interfaces must be in the same VTP domain. Trunk negotiation is managed by the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), which is a Point-to-Point Protocol. However, some internetworking devices might forward DTP frames improperly, which could cause misconfigurations.
Q35. Which two statements about IP SLAs are true? (Choose two.)
A. They are Layer 2 transport independent.
B. Statistics are collected and stored in the RIB.
C. Data for the delay performance metric can be collected both one-way and round-trip.
D. Data can be collected with a physical probe.
E. They are used primarily in the distribution layer.
Q36. Which three conditions can cause excessive unicast flooding? (Choose three.)
A. Asymmetric routing
B. Repeated TCNs
C. The use of HSRP
D. Frames sent to FFFF.FFFF.FFFF
E. MAC forwarding table overflow
F. The use of Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding
Causes of Flooding
The very cause of flooding is that destination MAC address of the packet is not in the L2 forwarding table of the switch. In this case the packet will be flooded out of all forwarding ports in its VLAN (except the port it was received on). Below case studies display most
common reasons for destination MAC address not being known to the switch.
Cause 1: Asymmetric Routing
Large amounts of flooded traffic might saturate low-bandwidth links causing network performance issues or complete connectivity outage to devices connected across such low-bandwidth links.
Cause 2: Spanning-Tree Protocol Topology Changes
Another common issue caused by flooding is Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) Topology Change Notification (TCN). TCN is designed to correct forwarding tables after the forwarding topology has changed. This is necessary to avoid a connectivity outage, as after a topology change some destinations previously accessible via particular ports might become accessible via different ports. TCN operates by shortening the forwarding table aging time, such that if the address is not relearned, it will age out and flooding will occur. TCNs are triggered by a port that is transitioning to or from the forwarding state. After the TCN, even if the particular destination MAC address has aged out, flooding should not happen for long in most cases since the address will be relearned. The issue might arise when TCNs are occurring repeatedly with short intervals. The switches will constantly be fast-aging their forwarding tables so flooding will be nearly constant. Normally, a TCN is rare in a well-configured network. When the port on a switch goes up or down, there is eventually a TCN once the STP state of the port is changing to or from forwarding. When the port is flapping, repetitive TCNs and flooding occurs.
Cause 3: Forwarding Table Overflow
Another possible cause of flooding can be overflow of the switch forwarding table. In this case, new addresses cannot be learned and packets destined to such addresses are flooded until some space becomes available in the forwarding table. New addresses will then be learned. This is possible but rare, since most modern switches have large enough forwarding tables to accommodate MAC addresses for most designs. Forwarding table exhaustion can also be caused by an attack on the network where one host starts generating frames each sourced with different MAC address. This will tie up all the forwarding table resources. Once the forwarding tables become saturated, other traffic will be flooded because new learning cannot occur. This kind of attack can be detected by examining the switch forwarding table. Most of the MAC addresses will point to the same port or group of ports. Such attacks can be prevented by limiting the number of MAC addresses learned on untrusted ports by using the port security feature.
Q37. In the DiffServ model, which class represents the highest priority with the highest drop probability?
AF43 â Assured forwarding, high drop probability, Class 4 DSCP, and Flash-override precedence.
Table of AF Classes and Drop Priority
Q38. Which statement about the RPF interface in a BIDIR-PIM network is true?
A. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface is always the interface that is used to reach the PIM rendezvous point.
B. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface can be the interface that is used to reach the PIM rendezvous point or the interface that is used to reach the source.
C. In a BIDIR-PIM network, the RPF interface is always the interface that is used to reach the source.
D. There is no RPF interface concept in BIDIR-PIM networks.
RPF stands for "Reverse Path Forwarding". The RPF Interface of a router with respect to an address is the interface that the MRIB indicates should be used to reach that address. In the case of a BIDIR-PIM multicast group, the RPF interface is determined by looking up the Rendezvous Point Address in the MRIB. The RPF information determines the interface of the router that would be used to send packets towards the Rendezvous Point Link for the group.
Q39. When the BGP additional-paths feature is used, what allows a BGP speaker to differentiate between the different available paths?
A. The remote BGP peer prepends its own next-hop address to the prefix.
B. A unique path identifier is encoded into a dedicated field to the NLRI.
C. A route distinguisher is appended to the prefix by the receiving BGP speaker.
D. The additional path information is encoded in an extended community.
Q40. Refer to the exhibit.
Which OSPFv3 routes will be visible in the routing table of R2?
B. 2001:12::1/128, 2001:112::1/128
D. No OSPFv3 routes will be visible.
The command âipv6 unicast-routingâ needs to be configured on both routers before any IPv6 routes will be seen.